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Glossary A - D
Glossary E - I
Glossary J - P
Glossary Q - S
Glossary T - Z

  A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z  

 

E-Commerce (Electronic Commerce) - refers to the general exchange of goods and services via the Internet.
E-mail (Electronic Mail) - Messages sent from one person to another via a network. E-mail can also be sent automatically to a large number of addresses (mailing list).
Encrypt Processing and changing data so that only the intended recipient can read it. The recipient of the encrypted data must have the proper decryption key and a program to decrypt the data.
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions; pronounced fak) - A file or document that lists commonly asked questions and their answers.
Forwarding (E-mail) Having e-mail automatically sent (forwarded) from one e-mail address, to another e-mail address. If a web host has “e-mail forwarding”, then an e-mail of the form, somebody@mypage.com will be sent to the specified forwarding address. For example, support@mypage.com, webmaster@mypage.com, and anythingelse@mypage.com will all be sent to the account specified (some hosts allow these to be forwarded to different accounts).
Frames The use of multiple, independently controllable sections on a web page. This effect is achieved by building each section as a separate HTML file and having one "master" HTML file identify all of the sections. When a user requests a web page that uses frames, the address requested is actually that of the "master" file that defines the frames; the result of the request is that multiple HTML files are returned, one for each visual section. Links in one frame can request another file that will appear in another (or the same) frame. A typical use of frames is to have a navigation menu displayed in one frame and the selected (linked to) files in another frame.
FrontPage Microsoft® FrontPage® is a proprietary web site creation and management software tool. FrontPage requires special server extensions, known as FrontPage extensions, to function properly.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) - A common method of moving files between two computers (usually a server and a client). FTP is also a special way to login to another computer for the purposes of transferring files.
Gigabyte (GB) - 1024 Megabytes, 230 bytes
Guest book A script on a web page with a form that allows web site visitors to sign in and leave comments or questions.
GUI (Graphical User Interface) - A graphical (rather than purely textual) user interface to a computer. The term came into existence because the first interactive user interfaces to computers were text-and-keyboard oriented and usually consisted of commands you had to remember and computer responses that were infamously brief. The command interface of DOS (which is still available from within the Windows operating system) is an example of the typical user-computer interface before GUIs arrived.
Hacker (1) A term used by some to mean an individual who tries to break into computer systems or bypass security arrangements over the Internet. (2) A term used by some to mean "a clever programmer".
Hit In reference to the World Wide Web, 'hit' means a single request from a web browser for a single item from a web server; thus in order for a web browser to display a page that contains 2 graphics, 3 'hits' would occur at the server - 1 for the HTML page, and one for each of the 2 graphics.
Home Page (1) The first web page that is displayed after starting a web browser. (2) The first or main page of a web site on the Internet.
Host (1) A computer on a network that provides disk storage or services to other computers on the network. (2) Every web site, e-mail, file, or online service is stored (called 'hosted') on a computer (called a server) which is connected to the Internet.
HTML (HyperText Markup Language) - The set of markup symbols or codes inserted in a file intended for display on a web page. The markup tells the web browser how to display a web page's words and images for the user. Each individual markup code is referred to as an element (also referred to as a tag). Some elements come in pairs that indicate when a display effect is to begin and when it is to end.
HTTP (HyperText Transport Protocol) - The protocol for moving hypertext files across the Internet. Requires an HTTP client program at one end, and an HTTP server program at the other end.
HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer, or HTTP over SSL) is a Web protocol developed by Netscape and built into web browsers that encrypts and decrypts both user page requests and the pages that are returned by the web server. HTTPS and SSL support the use of digital certificates from the server so that a user can authenticate the sender. Newer web browsers can do this automatically and report any discrepancies between the site and the digital certificate as an error message.
Hypertext

The organization of information units into connected associations that a user can choose to make. An instance of such an association is called a 'link' or 'hypertext link'. (The underlined word 'link' in the previous sentence is an example of a hypertext link. When the computer's mouse pointer is positioned over a link, the cursor or pointer typically turns into a hand with an extended finger. Clicking the link redirects the web browser to the destination specified by the link.)

Hypertext was the main concept that led to the invention of the World Wide Web, which is, after all, nothing more (or less) than an enormous amount of information content connected by an enormous number of hypertext links.

ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) - The nonprofit private (non-government) corporation that has responsibility for IP address allocation, protocol parameter assignment, DNS management, and root server system management functions.
IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) - A standard protocol for accessing e-mail from a local e-mail server. IMAP is a client/server protocol in which e-mail is received and held by an e-mail server. The e-mail client can display just the heading and the sender of the letter and you can then decide whether to download the entire message. You can also create and manipulate folders or mailboxes on the server, delete messages, or search for certain parts of a message or an entire message. IMAP requires continual access to the server during the time that you are working with your mail. A less sophisticated protocol is POP3. With POP3, your mail is saved for you in your mailbox on the server. When you read your mail, all of it is immediately downloaded to your computer and deleted from the server. POP and IMAP deal with the receiving of e-mail and are not to be confused with the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), a protocol for transferring e-mail across the Internet. E-mail is sent with SMTP and a mail handler receives it on the recipient's behalf. Then the mail is read using POP or IMAP.
Index

A database of web sites. Your listing in an index depends on what you tell them in your submission, not what is on your page. Yahoo is an example of an index. (See also Search Engine.)

Internet A worldwide system of computer networks (a network of networks) in which users at one computer can (if they have permission) get information from any other computer. It was conceived by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the U.S. Government in 1969 and was first known as the ARPANet. The original aim was to create a network that would allow users of a research computer at one university to be able to "talk" to research computers at other universities. A side benefit of ARPANet's design was that, because messages could be routed or rerouted in more than one direction, the network could continue to function even if parts of it were destroyed in the event of a military attack or other disaster. Today, the Internet is a public, cooperative, and self-sustaining facility accessible to hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Physically, the Internet uses currently existing public telecommunication networks. Technically, what distinguishes the Internet is its use of a set of protocols called TCP/IP.
Internet Explorer The web browser distributed by Microsoft.
InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center) - Until 1998, a cooperative activity between the U.S. Government and Network Solutions, Inc., InterNIC was the organization responsible for registering and maintaining the .com, .net, and .org top-level domain names on the World Wide Web. Network Solutions, Inc. performed the actual registration. As a result of a new U. S. Government Statement of Policy (known as "the white paper") in October 1998, competition was introduced in domain name registration for these top-level domains and a new, nonprofit global organization (ICANN), was designated to conduct the registrar accreditation process.
Intranet A private network inside a company or organization that uses the same kinds of software that are found on the public Internet, but that is only for internal use.
IP Address

(Internet Protocol Address) - A unique network address consisting of 4 numbers (each 0 to 255) separated by periods (dots). This translates into 4,228,250,625 possible addresses, but many of these are reserved for special purposes.

An example of an IP Address is 216.134.209.83, which is that of the server where ShenValleyOnline.net is located. Every computer that is on the Internet has a unique (but not necessarily permanent) IP address. Many IP addresses are assigned dynamically when a domain is accessed rather than having a permanently assigned IP address. In the USA, IP addresses are controlled and assigned by ARIN.

IRC (Internet Relay Chat) - On the Internet, chatting is "talking" to other people who are using the Internet at the same time you are. Usually, this "talking" is the exchange of typed messages requiring one site as the repository for the messages (the "chat site") and a group of users who take part from anywhere on the Internet. In some cases, a private chat can be arranged between two parties who meet initially in a group chat. Chats can be ongoing or scheduled for a particular time and duration. Most chats are focused on a particular topic of interest and some involve guest experts or famous people who "talk" to anyone joining the chat.
ISP (Internet Service Provider) - An organization that provides access to the Internet for its local customers. Each ISP has its own networks and servers that perform specific tasks such as e-mail and Internet requests for its customers.

 

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